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对比以下两段对话,情景都是通过电话去预定会议室。

S: Welcome to RoomLine, the automated conference room reservation system within S C S. How may I help you today? S: Hello, before I tell you who I am, what’s the password?
U: I want to book a room U: I want to book a room
S: For when do you need the conference room? S: Some people may not be positively disposed to home sweet home.
U: uh I haven’t really I don’t know let’s say Monday U: uh I haven’t really I don’t know let’s say Monday
S: The date you gave me was ambiguous: did you mean today or Monday, May third ? S: This puts me in somewhat of a bind. I haven’t been programmed to explain.
U: I meant next Monday U: I meant next Monday
S: For what time do you need the room? S: You can’t be serious!
U: From two in the afternoon U: From two in the afternoon
S: Until what time will you need this conference room? S: That was a highly erotic number you just entered. You could make a strong robot melt using digits like that…
U: I think I’ll need it for two hours probably U: I think I’ll need it for two hours probably
S: I found 5 rooms available Monday, May 3rd between 2 and 4 p.m. Would you like a small or a large room? S: Well, let’s hope that you’re not making a mistake.
U: a small one would do U: a small one would do
S: 2 of these 5 rooms are relatively small: Newell Simon 4513, and 3501. Would you like a reservation for any of these rooms? S: This is confusing. Why bring minimal quantities of size into this?
U: as long as they have a projector U: as long as they have a projector
S: Both these rooms have projection units. Which room do you want? S: Sorry for the tangent, but that reminds me of carefree robot summers spent having masses of unprocessed data.
U: i don’t really care any of them would be okay U: i don’t really care any of them would be okay
S: One choice would be Newell Simon 4513. This room can accommodate 15 people, and has a projector, a whiteboard and network access.  Do you want a reservation for Newell Simon 4513? S: Robots care. You should care!
U: actually what’s the other one? U: actually what’s the other one?
S: The last available room is Newell Simon 3501. This room can accommodate 17 people, and has a projector, a whiteboard and network access. Do you want a reservation for Newell Simon 3501? S: If I were sentient I’d ignore that question.
U: no U: no
S: Okay. We have now reached the end of the list of 2 rooms I had available. Do you still want a reservation for any of them? S: Can you say ‘no’ if someone tells you to ‘just say no’?
U: what can I say? U: what can I say?
S: If you want a reservation for one of these rooms, please tell me the room you would like. You could also say ‘I’ll take any room’ if they look equally good. If you do not want a reservation for one of these rooms, just say ‘no’. S: Try some introspection to get at that answer.
U: no U: no
S: I’m sorry I couldn’t be more helpful. Is there something else I could help with today? S: Not no! Anything but no!
U: no thanks U: no thanks
S: Before concluding this session, I need you to answer one question. Are you satisfied with your interaction with the system? S: I have to know your name first before responding to that.
U: no U: no
S: Thank you for calling. Have a nice day. S: Yes.

Roomline(左边): 基于卡内基梅隆大学(CMU)的技术的校园试验系统。CMU是过去20年中最活跃的研究中心之一,尤其是自1999年Wu & Rudnicky创建的对话管理器AGENDA以来。2003年,Bohus & Rudnicky创造了RavenClaw,它是CMU架构的语音对话系统,即现在奥林巴斯对话系统结构的标准对话管理器。

Elbot(右边): 始于1990年的罗纳奖(Loebner Prize Contest)是一个年度人工智能竞赛。奖励那些在图灵测试中“最像人类”的聊天机器人。2008年的罗纳奖获得者就是Elbot。

对话系统自1950年以来的两个趋势

聊天机器人(chatterbot)一个是外观模拟对话。 代表:Ask Jeeves公司(即现在的Ask.com),Artificial life(1998年在纳斯达克NASDAQ/ALIF)

对话管理系统(dialog managment):一个是模拟真实的对话,并动态产生合适的提示,反问和答案。代表:Roomline,Guidyu

在图灵测试的定义中我们可以直接发现这两种方式共存的原因,因为图灵测试仅重视所提供答案的感官的有效性,而不去验证回答是否基于理解。

但是对于商业应用,拟人化非常重要-用户体验的基石之一,但是当这一切都构建在嘻哈式的商业应用之上时,再完美的拟人性也失去了意义。就跟一百个零前面一旦丢失了一个1,那么其意义尽失了。

鉴别聊天机器人和对话管理系统也很简单。设定一个聊天目标,然后去检验系统的回应是否符合在多个问答里是否有统一的逻辑所贯穿, 在做了3个问答以后,系统的回答是否仍然跟你所设定的目标所契合。

在上面的例子里,最典型的问答发生在标记为蓝色的部分。顾客的反应非常人性化,非常微妙:我还能说什么呢?即使一个真人也难以恰如其分的应对这样的情形。对话管理系统则不然,反正我是机器,我处理不了你那些微妙的情绪,但是我知道你的目的和要求,也又是顾客跳出了谈话的范畴,那我就把顾客给拽回到主题。

聊天机器人则是另一个思路,我不管你想做什么,我只是要让你把我当成一个真人, 所以聊天机器人的答案是:你自己好好想想吧。单单看这么一句回答,不就是你的发小的回答么?

刚刚看到一个机器人的新闻, 您说她是chatterbot还是dialog managment?

人形机器人在东京百货公司接待客人

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